1, [from FUD] Historically, political posturing engaged in by hardware and software vendors ostensibly committed to standardization but actually willing to fragment the market to protect their own shares. The Unix International vs.: OSF conflict about Unix standards was one outstanding example; Microsoft vs. Netscape vs. W3C about HTML standards is another.
2. Since about 2000 the FUD wars have a different character; the battle over open standards has been partly replaced and partly subsumed by the argument between closed- and open source proponents. Nowadays, accordingly, the term is most likely to be used of anti-open-source propaganda emitted by Microsoft. Compare astroturfing.