[common Iron Age jargon, preserved by Unix]
1. [techspeak] A copy of the contents of core, produced when a process is aborted by certain kinds of internal error.
2. By extension, used for humans passing out, vomiting, or registering extreme shock. “He dumped core. All over the floor. What a mess.” “He heard about X and dumped core.”
3. Occasionally used for a human rambling on pointlessly at great length; esp. in apology: “Sorry, I dumped core on you”.
4. A recapitulation of knowledge (compare bits, sense 1). Hence, spewing all one knows about a topic (syn. brain dump), esp. in a lecture or answer to an exam question. “Short, concise answers are better than core dumps” (from the instructions to an exam at Columbia). See core.